Resource Management:

Water

Water Cooling
The big towers many people associate with nuclear plants are for cooling water used to make steam. Other kinds of plants have these towers, too. Inside, water sprays out in a fine mist, where it is cooled by air. Most water is then recycled into the plant. The puffs you see coming out of a cooling tower are just water vapor.

Electricity generation requires large amounts of water to produce steam, remove heat or power hydroelectric turbines. (Hydropower makes up about 2 percent of Southern Company generation.) Some of the water naturally evaporates—what you see rising out of the large cooling towers at steam power plants is water vapor. Some of the water at power plants is cooled and reused. Most is returned back to its source.

Environmental concerns regarding water principally relate to the quantity of water withdrawn and consumed from rivers and lakes, the quality of the water returned to the source, and any effects on aquatic life. Southern Company plants withdraw, on average, almost 4.5 billion gallons of water per day; about 94 percent of that water is returned to the river or lake.

Intakes

Southern Company is researching technologies—including light and sound devices, barrier nets, fish return systems, and fine mesh screens—to reduce the impact of power plant intakes on aquatic life.

Proposed new EPA standards for cooling water intake structures are in the comment phase. Southern Company and its subsidiaries have submitted comments to the newly proposed standards including recommendations for the rule.

Southern Company supports reasonable regulations that take into account the great variation of impacts from plant to plant, but national standards without flexibility for site-specific issues are unwarranted. Southern Company's formal comments on the proposed rule include recommendations to address these and other issues. Read comments.

Water Testing
Water testing is a regular activity in the lakes at our hydroelectric plants.

Discharges

The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System controls water quality by regulating point source discharges into U.S. waterways. Southern Company power plants have water discharge permits for pH, suspended solids, oil and grease, chlorine, temperature, iron, and other parameters. Typical permitted discharges include cooling water, ash ponds, coal pile runoff ponds, metal cleaning waste ponds, sump overflows, and oil/water separators. These points are monitored or sampled periodically in accordance with permit requirements.

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